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    La diversidad de los lagartos del Eoceno del yacimiento de Sossís
    Miércoles 03 de Abril de 2013

    Salamanquesa común fotografiada en el Prepirineo. Arnau Bolet.

    El investigador del ICP Arnau Bolet publica, conjuntamente con Susan E. Evans del University College of London (Reino Unido), un artículo donde describe 17 taxones diferentes de lagartos y anfisbenas (un grupo de reptiles escamosos diferente de los lagartos y las serpientes) del yacimiento Eoceno de Sossís (Pallars Jussà). El trabajo que aparece esta semana en la revista Paleontologia Electronica revela una diversidad de lagartos en este yacimiento de hace unos 35 millones de años superior a la que hay en toda Cataluña hoy en día.

    La diversidad de lagartos del Eoceno en Europa era bastante bien conocida en países como Francia, Alemania, Suiza e Inglaterra, pero su conocimiento en la Península Ibérica se restringía a un solo yacimiento del Eoceno inferior de Portugal. Aunque el yacimiento de Sossís se conoce desde 1940, nunca hasta ahora se había hecho una descripción exhaustiva de la diversidad de lagartos que escondía.

    En el trabajo que publica esta semana la revista Paleontologia Electronica, Arnau Bolet, investigador del grupo de Faunas del Mesozoico del Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont y Susan E. Evans, del University College of London, describen por primera vez la asociación de lagartos de un yacimiento del Paleógeno (hace entre 65 y 25 millones de años) en España. Los autores describen hasta 17 taxones distintos de lagartos y anfisbenas (el único representante actual de las cuales en Europa es la culebrilla ciega que, pese a su nombre, no es una serpiente) lo que supone que la diversidad en un solo yacimiento sea superior a la que actualmente hay en Cataluña, donde se conocen 11 géneros de lagartos vivos.

    En este artículo se confirma la presencia de cordiliformes, un tipo de lagartos cuya presencia en Europa no era clara durante el Eoceno, y que actualmente sólo sobreviven en Madagascar y en África oriental. Los representantes actuales de este grupo tienen el cuerpo y la cabeza aplanada y se caracterizan por la presencia de osteodermos (placas óseas presentes en las escamas de algunos reptiles) rectangulares y/o espinosos dispuestos en hileras regulares por todo el cuerpo y la cola.

    Lacértidos, cordiliformes i escíncidos del yacimiento Eoceno de Sossís. 1-6: fragmentos de dentición de distintos lacértidos; 7: fragmento de dentición de posible cordiliforme; 8: fragmento de dentición de posible escíncido; 9-11: fragmentos craneales de lacértidos; 12: osteodermo de cordiliforme

    Algunos de los grupos identificados en este estudio tienen representantes actuales en Cataluña, como por ejemplo lacértidos (grupo al que pertenecen los lagartos verdes y las lagartijas), los dragones, los escíncidos (grupo al que pertenecen los actuales eslizones), anguinos (por ejemplo los actuales luciones) y anfisbenas (la actual culebrilla ciega). Otros, como los iguanios y cordiliformes ya no se encuentran en Europa o se han extinguido totalmente, como los gliptosaurinos. Estos últimos fueron un grupo de lagartos típicamente cubiertos por osteodermos tuberculados poligonales o rectangulares, dándoles un aspecto parecido al del actual monstruo de Gila americano (género Heloderma).

    Lacértido fotografiado en el Prepirineo. Arnau Bolet.

    Algunos de los taxones identificados en este yacimiento son los llamados "termofílicos", e indican un clima más cálido que el actual durante el Eoceno en Cataluña. Estas observaciones confirman las conclusiones basadas en el estudio de otros reptiles y mamíferos, que indican que durante el Eoceno el clima en Europa era de tipo subtropical.

    Equivalencia con Francia


    La fauna de lagartos de Sossís es parecida a la encontrada en los yacimientos clásicos de las Phosphorites du Quercy (Francia), lo que apoya los estudios que proponen que las faunas francesas de mamíferos del Eoceno comparten muchos taxones con las de las cuencas surpirenaicas en Catalunya.

    Un nuevo taxón identificado en este trabajo, compartido por Sossís y un yacimiento francés, será descrito próximamente en otro artículo.

    + info http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2013/412-eocene-squamates-from-spain