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    La fràgil empremta de la locomoció quadrúpeda en el trànsit Juràssic-Cretaci
    Friday, 15 February 2013 11:19

    Ignites de Las Cerradicas (Terol)

    Un nou estudi sobre unes icnites de dinosaures al jaciment de Las Cerradicas (Terol) ha revelat un biaix en la conservació de les impressions de les mans d’aquests animals. En aquesta recerca publicada a la revista PlosOne hi han col·laborat els investigadors de l’ICP Novella Razzolini, Àngel Galobart i Bernat Vila (investigador associat), i té implicacions des del punt de vista biomecànic i paleoecològic.

    Les semblances morfològiques entre petjades de dinosaures ornitòpodes i teròpodes sovint han provocat canvis en l’assignació taxonòmica d’individus en aquests grups. Els teròpodes eren un grup de dinosaures carnívors bípedes mentre que als ornitòpodes se’ls atribueix una locomoció també bípeda o ocasionalment quadrúpeda i una alimentació herbívora.

    Aquests dos grups de dinosaures produeixen unes petjades del peu molt similars, i aquesta és una de les principals dificultats amb la que es troben els investigadors a l’hora d’atribuir les impressions tridàctiles petites i mitjanes. Sovint els criteris utilitzats per determinar a quin grup pertanyen depenen molt de l’estat de conservació de les icnites. Les empremtes del peu solen conservar-se sempre mentre les impressions deixades per les mans són més superficials i, per tant, més vulnerables a patir la l’atac dels agents externs. Una erosió d’un sol centímetre de fondària pot suposar la desaparició de la marca de la mà.

    Arran de la neteja d’una zona del jaciment de Las Cerradicas (Terol) l’any 2007, van quedar exposades noves icnites tridàctiles que corresponen al trànsit Juràssic-Cretaci, fa uns 145 milions d’anys, i que han estat analitzades en aquest estudi. El treball ha estat liderat per Diego Castanera, del Grupo Aragosaurus-IUCA de la Universidad de Zaragoza i ha comptat amb la col·laboració de tres investigadors de l’ICP a més d’investigadors de la Universitat de Manchester i del Royal Veterinary College de Londres.

    Els investigadors han realitzat un estudi estratigràfic del jaciment mitjançant noves tècniques d’escàner (LiDAR) i fotogrametria tridimensional. Han observat que a la superfície del jaciment hi ha, a més de petjades de peu, impressions de mans menys profundes. L’efecte de l’erosió i un biaix en la manera com es preserven les impressions de les mans explicaria perquè de vegades els rastres de petits ornitòpodes només estarien formats per petjades de peus. Tal com s’observa a Las Cerradicas, la presència d’icnites de les mans s’interpreta com a un signe inequívoc de marxa quadrúpeda en el grup de petits dinosaures ornitòpodes.

    Les implicacions d’aquest estudi són importants no només des del punt de vista icnològic i biomecànic sinó també des del paleoecològic. L’orientació dels rastres i la freqüència i velocitat de les gambades suggereix que aquests dinosaures ornitòpodes es movien en ramats.

    + info Castanera D, Vila B, Razzolini NL, Falkingham PL, Canudo JI, et al. (2013) Manus Track Preservation Bias as a Key Factor for Assessing Trackmaker Identity and Quadrupedalism in Basal Ornithopods. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54177. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054177